© Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment 2022

The copyright material published on this website is subject to the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth), and is owned by the Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment, or where indicated, by a party other than the Department of Education, Skills and Employment.

Unless indicated, the copyright material available on this website is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-Sharealike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) licence.

Creative commons image

This licence allows you to:

  • Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format

  • Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material

for non-commercial purposes, provided:

  • you attribute the Australian Government Department of Education, Skills and Employment as the source of the copyright material, and indicate if changes were made; and

  • you distribute your contributions under the same CC BY-NC-SA license as the original.


Website material not available under a Creative Commons licence:

The Science by Doing logo, other logos and trade mark protected material are not licensed under a CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence and may not be used without permission of the Department of Education, Skills and Employment.

Linked material available on third party websites:

If you use the links provided on this website to access a third party’s website, you acknowledge and agree that the terms of use, including licence terms, set out on the third party’s website apply to the use which may be made of the materials on that third party’s website or where permitted under the Copyright Act 1968 (Cth).


The materials available on this website were developed by the Australian Academy of Science.

The Australian Academy of Science has compiled the material on this website in good faith and has endeavoured to ensure that all material is accurate and does not breach any entity’s rights at the time of its inclusion. However, the material may contain unintentional errors and is provided ‘as is’.

To the maximum extent lawful, the Australian Academy of Science:

  1. excludes all warranties in respect of this website and the material contained on it; and

  2. is not liable for:

  • any loss or damage however caused resulting from your use or inability to use this website or the material; or

  • any incidental, special or consequential damages arising from the use or inability to use the website or the material contained on it.

Variation of Terms of Use

The Australian Academy of Science may change, modify, add or remove any part of these Terms of Use, change, modify, add to or remove any material contained on this website or any other aspect of this website without notice or liability. It is your responsibility to regularly check these Terms of Use to ensure you are familiar with their current form. Your continued use of the website constitutes your acceptance of any changes to the Terms of Use.

Last updated 21-3-2022